pk10赛车前三必开

中文怎样才能成为世界通用第二语言

LIYUMINGBEIJINGYUYANDAXUEJIAOSHOU、YUYANZIYUANGAOJINGJIANCHUANGXINZHONGXINZHUREN。ZHONGGUOYUYANXUEHUICHANGWULISHI,ZHONGGUOYUYANXUEHUIYUYANZHENGCEYUGUIHUAYANJIUHUIHUIZHANG,ZHONGGUOCISHUXUEHUIHUIZHANG,ZHONGGUOZHONGWENXINXIXUEHUIFULISHIZHANG,GUOJIZHONGGUOYUYANXUEHUI(2016NIAN—2017NIAN)HUIZHANG。ZHUYAOYANJIULINGYUWEIYUYANXUELILUN、XIANDAIHANYU、XINLIYUYANXUE、YUYANGUIHUAXUEDENG。ZHUYOU《ERTONGYUYANDEFAZHAN》《HANYULIANGFANCHOUYANJIU》《YUFAYANJIULU》《Language Planning in China》DENG,ZHUBIANYOU《LILUNYUYANXUEJIAOCHENG》《YUYANXUEGAILUN》《QUANQIUHUAYUDACIDIAN》DENG。BINGZAIDUOZHONGKANWUSHANGFABIAOLUNWENWUBAIYUPIAN。

pk10赛车前三必开TUIJINZHONGWENCHENGWEISHIJIEGONGGONGCHANPIN

pk10赛车前三必开RENLEIMINGYUNGONGTONGTIBIXUYAOYOUYIXIEGONGGONGCHANPIN,ZHONGWENYOUKENENGCHENGWEIZHEIYANGDEGONGGONGCHANPIN。ZHONGGUOXIANGSHIJIECHUANBOZHONGWEN,SHIZHONGGUOZAIWEIRENLEIMINGYUNGONGTONGTIGONGXIANYIGEGONGGONGCHANPIN;WAIGUOPENGYOUXUEXIZHONGWEN,SHIYAOZHANGWOWEILAISHIJIEDEYIGEZHONGYAOGONGGONGCHANPIN。

pk10赛车前三必开ZHONGWENSHISHIJIEDESHENMEGONGGONGCHANPIN?DANGQIANLAIKAN,ZHONGWENHENKENENGCHENGWEISHIJIEDIERYUYAN。ZHONGWENZAILVYOU、GOUWUDENGCHANGYUDEBIAOPAISHANGCHUZAIXINGMUWEIZHI,ZHEIBUSHIGEBIEXIANXIANG。GUOJISHANGHENDUOJICHANG、LVYOUCHANGSUOHESHANGMAOZHONGXINDEZHISHIPAI,DOUBIAOXIEYOUZHONGWEN,ZHONGWENYIBANLIEZAIDISANXING。DIYIXINGYIBANSHIBENGUOYUYAN;DIERXINGYIBANSHIGUOJITONGYONGYUDEDIWEI,DUOSHIYINGWEN;DISANXINGYIBANJIUSHIZHONGWEN,DISANXINGYINGDANGSHIGUOJIDIERDAYUYANDEWEIZHI。BIRUTAIGUOSUWANNEIPUGUOJIJICHANG、FAGUODAIGAOLEGUOJIJICHANG。ZAIYOUXIEDIFANG,ZHONGWENSHENZHIPAIZAIDIERXINGWEIZHI,RUHANGUORENCHUANGUOJIJICHANG、AODALIYAMOERBENGUOJIJICHANG、XINXILANAOKELANGUOJIJICHANGDENG。

YINGWENSHISHIJIEDUOGUODEDIYIWAIYU,YESHISHIJIEDIYITONGYONGYUYAN;ZHONGWENZAIDUOSHUGUOJIAYUYANJINGGUANZHONGDEWEIZHIBIAOMING,ZHONGWENZHENGZAICHENGWEISHIJIEDIERTONGYONGYUYAN。WORENWEI,SHIJIEZHIYOUYIZHONGTONGYONGYUSHIBUGOUDE,YEXUYAOLAIZIBUTONGWENHUABEIJINGDEQITAYUYAN。

TU1 YUYANGONGJUGONGNENGZHIBIAO

ZHONGWENDEWAIYUJIAOSE

WAIYUDUIYIGEGUOJIALAISHUOSHIFENZHONGYAO。GUOJIAKAISHEMOUZHONGWAIYUDEDONGJI,HENDACHENGDUSHANGFANYINGZHEMOUZHONGWAIYUZAIZHEIGEGUOJIASUOFAHUIDEZUOYONG。ZHEIZHONGZUOYONGJIUGOUCHENGLE“WAIYUJIAOSE”。WOCENGZAI《HAIWAIHANYUXUEXIZHEDILINGHUADESIKAO》(《SHIJIEHANYUJIAOXUE》2018NIANDI3QI)YIWENZHONGTICHUWAIYUJIAOSEDEGAINIAN,BINGGENJUSHIJIEFANWEINEIWAIYUXUEXIHESHIYONGDEQINGKUANG,BAWAIYUJIAOSEFENWEILIUDALEI:

1.WAISHIWAIYU。YIBANQINGKUANGXIA,BUGUANYIGEGUOJIAGUOLIRUHE,ZONGSHIYOURENLAIXUEXITADEYUYAN。ZHEISHIWEILEMANZUWAIJIAODEXUQIU,YOUSHIHAIJIANJIXUESHUYANJIUXUQIU。FANSHIZUOWEIGUOJIAGUANFANGYUYANDEYUYAN,DOUYOUCHENGWEI“WAISHIWAIYU”DEKENENG。

pk10赛车前三必开2.LINGYUWAIYU。YIGEGUOJIAZAIMOUGEFANGMIANBIJIAOTUCHU,MOUGEXIANGGUANLINGYUDERENJIUHUIQUXUEXITADEYUYAN。BIRU:XUEMEISHENGCHANGFADERENYAOXUEXIYIDALIWEN;DUIZHONGYIGANXINGQUDERENYAOXUEXIZHONGWENDENG。

pk10赛车前三必开3.FANLINGYUWAIYU。YIGEGUOJIAZAIJINGJI、WENHUADENGLINGYUYOULEKUAISUFAZHAN,HUIYOUXUDUORENLAIXUEXITADEYUYAN。CISHIDEXUEXIZHEYIBANHAIDOUSHICHENGNIANREN,YEKEYICHENGWEI“CHENGRENWAIYU”。

4.JICHUJIAOYUWAIYU。YIGEGUOJIADEFAZHANSHUIPING,KEYIMINGXIANDIYOUZHUYUTAGUOFAZHAN,QIYUYANJIUHUIJINRUQITAGUOJIADEJICHUJIAOYU。WOGUODEJICHUJIAOYUWAIYUYOULIUMEN:YINGWEN、RIWEN、EWEN、FAWEN、DEWEN、XIBANYAWEN。

5.ZHONGYAOWAIYU。YIGEGUOJIADEJINGJI、ZHENGZHIHEZONGHEGUOLIJUYUSHIJIEQIANLIE,TADEYUYANJIUHUIZUOWEISHIJIEZHONGDUOGUOJIADEZHONGYAOWAIYU,SHENZHISHIDIYIWAIYU。

pk10赛车前三必开6.DIYIYUYAN。YIGEGUOJIAZHANGQIJUYUSHIJIEHUOMOUYIDIQUDELINGXIANDIWEI,YIXIEWAIGUORENJIUKENENGJIANGQIYUYANZUOWEIERTONGDEDIYIYUYAN。ZHEISHIYIZHONG“CHAOWAIYU”,BANYANZHE“ZHUNMUYU”JIAOSE。YIZHONGWAIYUNENGCHENGWEIZHUNDIYIYUYANHUODIYIYUYAN,YOUTESHUDELISHIYUANYUAN,YIBANYUANYUJUNSHIZHANLINGHUOZHEJUNSHIZHIMINDETESHUBEIJING,XIANDAISHEHUIYIBUDAKENENGFASHENG,YEYAOBIMIANFASHENGZHEIZHONGQINGKUANG。

WAIYUJIAOSEYOUSANDATEDIAN:DIYI,BUTONGDEWAIYUJIAOSEJUYOUBUTONGWAIYUGONGNENG,WAIYUGONGNENGYOUQIANGRUOZHIFEN。DIER,BUTONGDEWAIYUJIAOSEJUYOU“DIEDAIXING”,JIBUTONGDEWAIYUJIAOSEKEYIGONGCUN,BIRU“WAISHIWAIYU”YU“LINGYUWAIYU”KEYIGONGCUN,“JICHUJIAOYUWAIYU”KEYIYU“FANLINGYUWAIYU、LINGYUWAIYU、WAISHIWAIYU”GONGCUN。DISAN,WAIYUCHONGDANGSHENMEJIAOSE,YU“BENTUGUO”DUI“DUIXIANGGUO”DEYINGXIANGLICHENGZHENGBI。BENTUGUOSHIZHIMOUZHONGYUYANDEMUGUO,DUIXIANGGUOSHIBAMOUZHONGYUYANZUOWEIWAIYUDEGUOJIA。BENTUGUODUIDUIXIANGGUODEYINGXIANGLI,QUJUEYUBENTUGUOZONGHEGUOLI,YEQUJUEYUDUIXIANGGUODUIBENTUGUOGUOLIDEGANZHI。

pk10赛车前三必开WAIGUORENXUEXIZHONGWEN,ZHONGWENJIUSHITAMENDEWAIYU。HANXUECHUANDAOXIFANGYIJINGYOUJIBAINIANDELISHI。JIU20SHIJIYILAIDEQINGKUANGERLUN,ZHONGWENSHOUXIANSHIWAISHIWAIYU,YESHILINGYUWAIYU。ZAONIANDAOZHONGGUOLAIXUEXIZHONGWENZHE,DUOSHICHUYUWAIJIAOXUQIU,HUOZHELAIXUEXIZHONGGUODUYOUDELINGYUXUEWEN,RUZHONGGUOYUYANWENZI、ZHONGGUOWENXUE、ZHONGYI、ZHONGGUOGONGFU、ZHONGGUOCHUANTONGQUYI、ZHONGGUOGUDIANZHEXUEDENG。ZAIZHOUENLAIZONGLIQINZIGUOWENXIA,QINGHUADAXUE“DONGOUJIAOHUANSHENGZHONGGUOYUWENZHUANXIUBAN”(XIANZAIBEIJINGYUYANDAXUEDEQIANSHEN)YU1951NIANZHENGSHIKAIKE,ZHEISHIYIGEBIAOZHIXINGDESHIJIAN。

JINRU21SHIJI,ZHONGGUODEFAZHANJUSHIZHUMU,XUEXIZHONGWENDERENYULAIYUDUO,XUEXIDEZHUANYEKEMUYEZHUJIANCHAOYUEZHONGGUOCHUANTONGXUEWEN,ZHONGWENFAZHANWEI“FANLINGYUWAIYU”。XIANZAIMEINIANYUEYOU50WANRENLAIHUAXUEXI,GUOWAIYEKAIBANGEZHONGZHONGWENJIAOXUE,DAO2017NIAN,SHIJIESHANGYIJINGYOU170DUOGEGUOJIAKAISHILEZHONGWENJIAOXUE。

ZHONGWENJINRUWAIGUODEJICHUJIAOYU,KAISHICHENGDAN“JICHUJIAOYUWAIYU”DEJIAOSE,SHICONG1955NIANHANGUOBAHANYUNARUJICHUJIAOYUKAISHIDE,DANSHIYIDUJINZHANHUANMAN,DAO2000NIANCAIYOU7GEGUOJIA。DAO2010NIANZENGZHI17GEGUOJIA,2014NIAN31GEGUOJIA,2017NIAN67GEGUOJIA。DAO2019NIAN,HANYUYIJINGJINRU70GEGUOJIADEJICHUJIAOYUTIXI。CONGSHUJUSHANGKAN,2014NIANSHIZHONGWENGUOJICHUANBODEYIGEGUANJIANNIAN,ZONGTISHANGZHONGWENKAISHIBANYAN“JICHUJIAOYUWAIYU”DEJIAOSE。2015NIAN,ZHONGGUOCHENGWEISHIJIEDIERDAJINGJITI。JUSHANGWUBU2018DESHUJU,ZHONGGUOFUWUMAOYIZONGESHIJIEDIER,XIYINWAIZISHIJIEDIER,DUIWAITOUZISHIJIEDISAN。ZHONGGUODEJINGJIFAZHANSHICUJINZHONGWENDEWAIYUJIAOSESHANGTIJIDEZHONGYAOYINSU。

ZHONGWENDENGSHANGXINDEWAIYUJIAOSETAIJIE,YAORENSHIDAOQIZHONGDAYIYI:

DIYI,QUANQIUZHONGWENXUEXIZHEDEDILINGHUA。JUGUJI,QUANQIUWEICHENGNIANRENYIJINGZHANDAOHAIWAIQUANTIZHONGWENXUEXIZHEDE50%,YIXIEGUOJIASHENZHIDADAOLE60%。HAIZIZAIZHONGXIAOXUEJIEDUANXUEXILEZHONGWEN,WULUNXUEXICHENGGUORUHE,TAMENZHEIYISHENGJIANGYUZHONGGUOCHANSHENGMOUZHONGLIANXI,HUOLAIZHONGGUOLIUXUE,HUOLAIZHONGGUOLVYOU,HUOCONGSHIYUZHONGGUOXIANGGUANDEGONGZUO。CHENGRENXUEXIWAIYUSHIWEILEYANQIANLIYI,SHIWEILEGONGZUO;ERTONGXUEXISHIWEILEWEILAIDELIYI,GENGDUODESHIWENHUAJIAZHIGUANDEXUEXI。ERWOMENYIQIANDEJIAOSHI、JIAOCAIDENG,DOUSHIWEICHENGRENZHUNBEIDE。ZHEIXUYAOJINXINGJISHIDEZHANLVEDIAOZHENG。

pk10赛车前三必开DIER,ZHONGWENGUOJIJIAOYUDEFAZHANFANGXIANG,JIUSHICUJINYIJINGBAZHONGWENLIERUJICHUJIAOYUWAIYUDEGUOJIA,JINYIBUBAZHONGWENZHIYUZHUYAOWAIYUDEDIWEI,TEBIESHIDIERWAIYUSHENZHIDIYIWAIYUDEDIWEI;CUJINQITAGUOJIABAZHONGWENLIERUJICHUJIAOYU。

DISAN,ZHONGWENMAICHULECHENGWEISHIJIEDIERYUYANDEZHONGYAOYIBU。ZHIYOUJINRUJICHUJIAOYUDEWAIYU,CAIYOUKENENGCHENGWEISHIJIERENMINJINGCHANGSHIYONGDEYUYAN。ZHONGWENDEXIAYIBUJIUSHIFAZHANWEI“ZHONGYAOWAIYU”。ZAISHIJIEYUYANSHENGHUOLI,ZHONGWENYIJINGJUYOUCHENGWEIDIERDAYUYANDEFAZHANQUSHI,ZHONGWENGUOJIJIAOYUWEICIDAXIALEJIANSHIDEJICHU。

TU2 YUYANWENHUAGONGNENGZHIBIAO

ZENGJIAZHONGWENDEKEJIHANLIANG

pk10赛车前三必开ZHONGWENYAOCHENGWEISHIJIEDEGONGGONGCHANPIN,TEBIESHIYAOCHENGWEISHIJIEDIERYUYAN,BIXUYAOYOUSANGEFANGMIANDETIAOJIAN:DIYI,ZHONGWENBIXUFUZAIYOURENLEIXIANJINDEKEJIWENHUAZHISHI;DIER,ZHONGWENZISHENYAOGAODUDEFENGFUQIEJUYOUYIDINGDEGUIFANXING;DISAN,YAOJUYOUXIANJINDEZHONGWENJIAOYULINIANHEJIAOYUJIAOXUEFANGFA。ZHEIYANGCAINENGGOURANGWAIGUORENJIAOKUAIDIXUEHAOZHONGWEN,BINGQIEZHANGWOLEZHONGWENYOUZHUYUHUOQUXIANJINDEWENHUAZHISHI,DEDAOGEFANGMIANDE“RENSHENGHONGLI”。ZHEILIZHITANZHONGWENDEKEJIHANLIANGWENTI。

(YI)ZHONGWENZAISHIJIESANDASUOYINZHONGDEDIWEI

MUQIANSHIJIEYOUSANDASUOYIN:“KEXUEYINWENSUOYIN”(Science Citation Index,SCI)、“SHEHUIKEXUEYINWENSUOYIN”(Social Science Citation Index,SSCI)HE“YISHUYURENWENYINWENSUOYIN”(Art & Humanities Citation Index,A&HCI)。“KEXUEYINWENSUOYIN”(SCI)SHIGUIMOZUIDADEKEYANCHENGGUOSHUJUJI,ZHUYAOSHOULUZIRANKEXUEHEYINGYONGKEXUELINGYUDEZHUANYEQIKANHELUNWENJI,SHEJISHUXUE、WULI、HUAXUE、DIZHI、JIXIE、JIQIREN、JISUANJIDENG106GEXUESHUFANGXIANG。“SHEHUIKEXUEYINWENSUOYIN”ZHUYAOSHOULUSHEHUIKEXUELINGYUDEZHUANYEQIKANHELUNWENJI,SHEJIYUYAN、SHEHUI、XINLI、DILI、ZHENGZHI、QUYUYANJIU、CHUANBODENG25GEXUESHUFANGXIANG;“YISHUYURENWENYINWENSUOYIN”ZEHANGAIYISHU、ZHEXUE、WENXUE、JIANZHU、LISHI、SHENXUEDENG14GEXUESHUFANGXIANGDEZHUANYEQIKANHELUNWENJI。

pk10赛车前三必开RAOGAOQIDENGQINGNIANXUEZHE,DUIZHEISANDASUOYIN2010-2019ZHEI10NIANDEYUYANWENBENFENBUQINGKUANGJINXINGLETONGJIFENXI,DECHUDEJIEGUOSHI:

ZAIZIRANKEXUE(SCI)ZHONG,YINGWENWENBENZHANLE98.05%。ZHEISHUOMINGQUANSHIJIEZUIZHONGYAODEKEXUECHENGGUODOUZAIYONGYINGYUBIAODA,QUANSHIJIELINGWAI7000DUOZHONGYUYANJIAQILAIHAIBUDAO2%。KEJILINGYUNEIDE“YUYANDANYIHUA”YIJINGSHIFENYANZHONG。CONGDIERMINGDEDEWENDAODILIUMINGDEPUTAOYAWENXINGCHENGDIERFANGZHEN,CONGPAIMINGDIQIDEBOLANWENDAOPAIMINGSHILIUDEKELUODIYAWEN,XINGCHENGDISANFANGZHEN。CONGKEJIWENXIANSHANGLAIKAN,ZUIZHONGYAODEYUYANBUDAO20ZHONG。ZHONGWENWEIJUDISI,DANZHANBIZHIYOU0.28%。

pk10赛车前三必开SHEHUIKEXUELINGYU(SSCI)ZHONG,YINGWENRENGRANZHANDIYIWEI,ZHANBIWEI96.2%。DEWEN、XIBANYAWEN、FAWEN、PUTAOYAWENHEEWENXINGCHENGDIERJITUAN。CONGPAIMINGDIQIDEJIEKEWENDAOPAIMINGDIERSHIDERIWENGOUCHENGDISANJITUAN。ZHONGWENMINGLUODI22WEI,YUANYINSHIDUOFANGMIANDE,YESHIPOZHIDEWANWEIDE。

ZAIYISHUHERENWENXUEKELINGYU(A&HCI)ZHONG,YINGWENWENBENZHAN75.3%,RENGZHANDIYI。FAWEN、DEWEN、XIBANYAWEN、YIDALIWEN、EWENDENGXINGCHENGDIERJITUAN。CONGPAIMINGDIQIDEPUTAOYAWENDAOPAIMINGDISHILIUDELITAOWANWEN,XINGCHENGDISANJITUAN。ZHONGWENPAIDISHIWEI。

pk10赛车前三必开(ER)YUYANDE“SANSHIJIE”SHUO

YUYANDE“SANSHIJIE”SHUO,SHIZHIYUYANNENGGOUBANGZHURENLEIFAXIANSHIJIE、WEIRENLEIMIAOHUISHIJIE、BANGZHURENLEISHIYINGSHIJIE。

pk10赛车前三必开DANGJIN,ZHIYOUQIANYANKEXUEJIA(BAOKUORENWENKEXUEJIAHESHEHUIKEXUEJIA)CAINENGFAXIANXINDESHIJIE,ZHEIXIEKEXUEJIAYANJIUKEXUESHISUOSHIYONGDEYUYAN,YANJIUCHENGGUOFABIAOSUOSHIYONGDEYUYAN,JIUSHIBANGZHURENLEIFAXIANXINSHIJIEDEYUYAN。XIANZAIKANLAI,BANGZHURENLEIFAXIANXINSHIJIEDEYUYAN,YEJIUSHISANDASHUJUKUZUICHANGYONGDENEI20LAIZHONGYUYAN。RENLEIDEMEIZHONGYUYANDOUZAIMIAOHUISHIJIETUJING,DANSHIZHIYOUBANGZHURENLEIFAXIANXINSHIJIEDEYUYAN,CAIYOUZIGESHOUXIANMIAOHUIXINDESHIJIETUJING,QITAYUYANYAOMESHIBAOCUNJIURISHIJIEDETUJING,YAOMESHITONGGUOFANYIHUODESHIJIEXINTUJING,DANSHIZHEIZHONGTUJING“YIHUI”,SHIJIANHUI“YANCHI”,TUJINGYEKENENGSHIZHEN。MEIZHONGYUYANDOUNENGBANGZHURENSHIYINGSHIJIE,DANSHIZHIYOUNEIXIEBANGZHURENLEIFAXIANXINSHIJIE、WEIRENLEI“SHOUHUI”SHIJIETUJINGDEYUYAN,CAINENGBANGZHUGENGDUORENGENGHAODISHIYINGSHIJIE。

YINGWENSHIQUANSHIJIEDEGONGGONGCHANPIN,SHIFAXIANXINSHIJIE、MIAOHUISHIJIE、BANGZHURENSHIYINGSHIJIEZUIZHONGYAODEYUYAN。DUIYINGYUYAOYOUYIGEKEGUANDETAIDU,YINGWENSHIYINGGUO、MEIGUO、AODALIYADENGGUODEYUYAN,DANYEBUWANQUANSHUYUZHEIXIEGUOJIA,ERSHISHIJIEDEGONGGONGCHANPIN,SHIGOUJIANRENLEIMINGYUNGONGTONGTIDEYIZHONGWENHUACHANPIN。

pk10赛车前三必开ZAISHIJIEYUYANSHENGHUOZHONG,ZHONGWENYEYUFAZHONGYAOQILAI,HENYOUKENENGCHENGWEIDIERDAYUYAN。ZAIGUOJIJIAOYULINGYU,ZHONGWENYIJINGBANYANJICHUJIAOYUWAIYUDEJIAOSE。DANZAISHIJIESANDAKEJISUOYINKUZHONG,ZHONGWENJIBENSHANGCHUZAIDIERFANGZHEN,ZIRANKEXUELINGYUZHONGWENPAIDI4MING,YISHURENWENLINGYUZHONGWENPAIDI10MING,DANZAISHEHUIKEXUELINGYULUOYU20MINGZHIWAI。RUGUOBUCAIQUCUOSHI,JINKUAIZENGJIAZHONGWENWENBENDEKEJIHANLIANG,ZAIZHENGQUGUOJIKEJIHUAYUQUANDETONGSHI,ZHENGQUZHONGWENDEGUOJIKEJIHUAYUQUAN,ZHONGWENJIUHENNANCHENGWEISHIJIEGONGGONGCHANPIN,ZHONGWENDEGUOJIJIAOYUYEBUKENENGJUYOUCHIXUFAZHANDELILIANG。

pk10赛车前三必开(SAN)ZENGJIAZHONGWENDEGUOJIZHISHIGONGJI

ZHENGQUZHONGWENDEGUOJIKEJIHUAYUQUAN,XUYAOWOGUOKEXUEJISHUDEFAZHAN,DANGENGXUYAOYOUHESHIDEKEXUEPINGJIAZHIDU。DANGQIANWOGUODEKEJIPINGJIABIAOZHUN,TEBIEQIZHONGZAIWAIWENKANWUSHANGFABIAOLUNWEN,ERXIANGDUIQINGSHIZHONGWENQIKAN。ZAI“KEXUEYINWENSUOYIN”(SCI)ZHONG,YINGWENWEI98.05%,DANJINYIBUFENXIHUIFAXIAN,ZHEI98%DUODECHENGJIU,MEIGUOXUEZHEDEGONGXIANLVSHI28%,SHIZUIGAODE;ZHONGGUOXUEZHEDEGONGXIANLVSHI17%,JINCIYUMEIGUO。ZHONGGUODEKEXUEGONGZUOZHEWEIYINGWENDEGUOJIZHISHIGONGJIZUOCHULEDAGONGXIAN,DANSHIBINGMEIYOUWEIZHONGWENDEGUOJIZHISHIGONGJIZUOCHUTONGYANGDEGONGXIAN。

2018NIAN1YUE,ZHONGGUOKEXUEJISHUXIEHUIZAIQIFABUDE《ZHONGGUOKEJIQIKANFAZHANLANPISHU(2017)》ZHONG,TONGJILESHIJIESHANG14GELUNWENCHANCHUDAGUOSCILUNWENDELIURUHELIUCHUQINGKUANG。JIANGGEGUOSUOYONGYOUDESCIQIKANSHUYIJIQIKANBENGUOZUOZHESUOFABIAODELUNWENZUODUIBI,FAXIANZHIYOUHELAN、YINGGUO、MEIGUO3GEGUOJIASHUYU“LUNWENLIURU”GUO,QITA11GEGUOJIADOUSHUYU“LUNWENLIUCHU”GUO,ZHONGGUOSHIZHEI11GEGUOJIAZHONGLUNWENLIUCHUZUIYANZHONGDEGUOJIAZHIYI。

ZHENGQU“LIANGGEHUAYUQUAN”(ZAIZHENGQUGUOJIKEJIHUAYUQUANDETONGSHI,ZHENGQUZHONGWENDEGUOJIKEJIHUAYUQUAN)SHIXUYAOZHIHUIDE。BIRU,KEYISHIYAN“ZHONGWENSHOUFA”HUO“ZHONGWAIWENBINGFA”DEZHIDU,ZHONGYAOKEJICHENGGUOYINGXIANZAIGUONEIZHONGWENKANWUSHANGFABIAO,ZHIHOUHUOTONGSHIZAIWAIWENQIKANSHANGFABIAO。YAOGULIJIAOSHOU、YANJIUYUAN、BOSHISHENGDENGKEYANRENYUAN“LIANGTIAOTUI”ZOULU,JIYONGWAIWENFABIAOCHENGGUO,YEYONGZHONGWENFABIAOCHENGGUO。SHENZHIYEYAOGULIGUOJIXUEZHEYONGZHONGWENFABIAOKEJICHENGGUO,TEBIESHIZHONGGUOLINGXIANDEXUESHULINGYU。2019NIAN12YUE26RI,ZHUMINGGUOJIYIXUEQIKANTHE LANCET(ZHONGWENYECHENG《LIUYEDAO》)ZAIGUANWANGSHANG,YIZHONGWENDEXINGSHIFABIAOLEZHONGGUOXUEZHEDEWENZHANG,ZHEIHUOXUSHIYIGEXINHAO。

BALUNWENXIEZAIZHONGGUODADISHANG,BUSHIYIJUKOUHAO,TAGUANHUKEXUEFAXIANNENGFOUJISHIDIZHUANHUAWEIZHONGGUOSHENGCHANLI,ZUIZHONGYEGUANXIDAOZHONGGUODEGUOJIDIWEIHEZHONGWENDEGUOJIZHISHIGONGJI。

TU3 GONGNENGSHIJIAOXIADESHIJIEYUYANFENLEI

QUANMIANZENGQIANGZHONGWENDEGONGNENG

YUYANSHIRENLEIYONGYUJIAOJIHESIWEIDEZUIWEIZHONGYAODEFUHAOXITONG;YUYANYESHIWENHUADEZHONGYAOZUCHENGBUFEN,SHIWENHUAZUIWEIZHONGYAODECHENGZAIZHE、CHANSHIZHEHEJIANGOUZHE;YUYANHAIXIANGSHIMINZUDETUTENG,CHANGCHANGJUYOUCHENGZAIMINZURENTONG、MINZUQINGGANDEZUOYONG。

pk10赛车前三必开YUYANDEDINGYIYOUBAIYUZHONG,YUYANDEGONGNENGYEYOUHENDUO,YOUGONGJUGONGNENG、SIWEIGONGNENG、WENHUAGONGNENGDENG。DANSHIHENGLIANGYUYANGONGNENGDEZHIBIAO,BIXUKEYIFANGBIANGUANCHA,FANGBIANHUOQUSHUJU。XIAMIAN,WOMENCONGGONGJUGONGNENG、WENHUAGONGNENGLIANGGEFANGMIANLAIJIANLIHENGLIANGYUYANGONGNENGDEZHIBIAOTIXI。

(YI)GONGJUGONGNENGZHIBIAO:5+1

YUYANDEGONGJUGONGNENGZHUYAOTIXIANZAIGOUTONGYU、GOUTONGLISHANG,QIPINGJIAZHIBIAOKECAIYONGA-FLIUGEZHIBIAO,QIZHONGFWEICANKAOXIANG(TU1)。

A.MUYURENKOU。MUYUSHIYUMINZUSHUXINGXIANGGUANLIANDEGAINIAN,YIBANRENDEMUYUDOUSHIDIYIYUYAN,TESHUQINGKUANGXIASHIDIERYUYAN。YUYANDEYICHUANCHENG,JIBENDEJIAOJIGONGNENGDEYIFAHUI,SHOUXIANYILAIMUYUHEMUYUREN。MUYURENKOUSHIYIGEYUYANDEDIPAN,SHIGONGJUGONGNENGXUYAOGUANZHUDEZHONGYAOZHIBIAO。

pk10赛车前三必开B.DIERYUYANRENKOU。ERYURENKOUSHULIANGSHIYUYANCHUANBOLIDEZUIWEIZHONGYAODEBIAOXIAN。YUYANXUEXISHIGE“SHILIYAN”,ZUOWEIDIERYUYANSHIYONGRENKOUYUEDUODEYUYAN,RENMENYUEQUZHENGXIANGXUEXI,ZHEIZHONGYUYANDEDIERYUYANSHIYONGRENKOUJIUHUIFEISUZENGZHANG。

pk10赛车前三必开C.GUANFANGYUYAN。“GUANFANGYUYAN”SHIGEJIAOWEIKUANFANDEGAINIAN,TABAOKUOGUOJIACENGMIANDEGUOYUHEGUANFANGYUYAN,YEBAOKUOGUOJIANEIBUDE“DIFANG”HEGUOJIZUZHISHIYONGDEGUANFANGYUYANHEGONGZUOYUYANDENG。CHONGDANGGUANFANGYUYANDEYUYAN,SHIYUYANDIWEIGUIHUADEJIEGUO,YOUYIDINGDEZHENGZHIDIWEI,NENGGOUZAIYIDINGFALV、GUIZHANGDEWEIHUXIAZAIYIDINGDEFANWEINEIWENDINGDIFAHUIJIAOJIZUOYONG,YINGCHENGWEIYUYANGONGNENGDEYIGEPINGJIAZHIBIAO。

D.WENZILEIXING。ZAIDANGJINZHUYAODEWENZIXITONGZHONG,LADINGZIMUDESHIYONGQUYUSHIZUIGUANGDE,QICISHIJILIERZIMU,ZAICISHIALABOZIMU,DISISHIHANZI。DANGJIN,SHIYONGLADINGZIMUDEYUYANZAIGUOJICHUANBOHEJISUANJIJIANPANSHANGSHIZHANYOUSHIDE。

E.WANGMINSHULIANGJIHULIANWANGWENBENLIANG。HULIANWANGGOUZHULERENLEIYIGEXINDEHUODONGKONGJIAN,XUNIKONGJIANDEYUYANSHENGHUOKUAISUFAZHAN,XINCIYU、XINWENTI、XINDECHUANBOFANGSHIBUDUANCHANSHENG,BINGZHENGZAIDUIXIANSHIKONGJIANDEYUYANSHENGHUOQIDAOYINLINGZUOYONG。HULIANWANGYUYANCHUANBOLIYUELAIYUEXIANZHU,XUNSUCHENGZHANGWEIYUYANGONGNENGPINGJIADEYIGEZHONGYAOZHIBIAO。

F.YUYANDEJINGJISHILI。DANGJINDEYUYANCHUANBOBEIHOUJIHUDOUYOUJINGJIYINSUDETUILI。JINGJIBENLAISHIYUYANGONGJUGONGNENGDEJIANJIECANXIANG,DANJIUMOUZHONGYIYIERYAN,DANGJINSHIJIEYUYANGEJUJIHUSHISHIJIEZHENGZHIJINGJIGEJUDEFUSHUCHANWU,MEIZHONGYUYANDEDIWEIJIQIGONGJUGONGNENGDEQIANGRUO,YUQIGUOJIADEZHENGZHIJINGJIDIWEIMIQIEXIANGGUAN。

(ER)WENHUAGONGNENGZHIBIAO:3+2

pk10赛车前三必开YUYANDEWENHUAZHINENG,KEYICONGSANGEJIBENZHIBIAOHELIANGGECANKAOXIANGLAIHENGLIANG(TU2)。

G.SHUMIANYUDEYOUWU。GENJU“MINZUYUYANZHI”WANGDETONGJI,ZAIDANGDAISHIJIE7000LAIZHONGYUYANZHONG,ZHIYOUYUE53%DEYUYANYOUSHUMIANWENBEN。

H.WENXIANLIANG。YOUXIEMINZUYEYOUSHUMIANYU,DANSHIMEIYOUDUOSHAORENYONGZHEIZHONGSHUMIANYUXIEZUOQIEFABIAOCHENGGUO。WENXIANLIANGDEDUOSHAOJUEDINGZHEIGEGUOJIASHIBUSHIYUYANQIANGGUO。

pk10赛车前三必开I.FANYILIANG。WENXIANFANYISHIKUAYUYANFASHENGWENHUAYINGXIANGDEHUODONG,SHIWENXIANSHENGWANGDEYIZHONGBIAOXIAN,YESHIYUYANWENHUAGONGNENGDEYIZHONGZHONGYAOBIAOXIAN。

pk10赛车前三必开J.TUCHULINGYU。RUGUOYAOXUEXIDILI,BIXUXUEDEWEN;XUEHANGKONGHANGTIANZHISHI,BIXUXUEYINGWENHEEWEN。YIGEMINZUZAINAGELINGYUGONGXIANZUIDUO,NAFANGMIANDEWENXIANHUIBEIFANYIDEZUIDUO。

K.MINGREN/MINGWU。MINGREN(RUYALISHIDUODE、BOLATU、KONGZI、LAOZIDENG),MINGWU(RURENLEIWENHUAYICHANDENG),DUIYIZHONGYUYAN、YIZHONGWENHUADETISHENGZUOYONGSHIQIANGDADE。

(SAN)SHIJIEYUYANDEGONGNENGFENLEI

GENJUHENGLIANGYUYANGONGNENGDE“8+3”ZHIBIAOTIXI,KEYIBASHIJIEDEYUYANFENCHENGTU3SUOSHIDELIUDAFANGZHEN:

DIYIFANGZHENSHIGONGNENGZUIWEIQIANGDADE“QUANQIUTONGYONGYU”。DANGQIANZHIYOUYINGWENJUBEIZHEIYIGONGNENG。

DIERFANGZHENSHI“GUOJIHEDIQUTONGYONGYU”。ZHEILEIYUYANZAIGUOJISHEHUIHUOMOUYIDIQUTONGYONG,SHULIANGYOU20LAIZHONG。JUTINA20LAIZHONG,HAIXUYAOTONGGUODUOGEZHIBIAO、DUOZHONGSHUJUQUEDING。DANZHEI20LAIZHONGYUYANSHIGUOJIABIBEIDEYUYANNENGLI。ZHONGWENZAIZHEIGEFANGZHENZHONGPAIQIANJIMING。

pk10赛车前三必开DISANFANGZHENSHISUOYOUJUYOUGUOJIAGUANFANGYUYANSHENFENDEYUYAN,BAOKUOGUOYU、GUOJIAGUANFANGYUYANDENG,DANGRANXUYAOCHUQUDIYI、DIERFANGZHENDEYUYAN。SHIJIESHANGYOU200DUOGEGUOJIAHEDIQU,GUANFANGYUYANDAYUEYOU100DUOZHONG。

DISIFANGZHENSHIDIFANGDEGUANFANGYUYAN。RUYINGGUOCHULEYINGWENZHIWAI,WEIERSHI、SUGELANDEYUYAN;WOGUODEDIFANGZHONGYAOYUYANYOUMENGGUZU、ZANGZU、WEIWUERZU、HASAKEZU、CHAOXIANZU、YIZU、ZHUANGZUDENGMINZUYUYAN,HAIYOUYUEFANGYAN、KEJIAFANGYAN、MINNANFANGYAN、WUFANGYANDENG。QIANSIGEFANGZHENDEYUYANDAYUEYOU200ZHONGZUOYOU。

pk10赛车前三必开DIWUFANGZHENSHICHUQUQIANSIGEFANGZHENDE“QITAXIAOYUZHONG”。SHULIANGJIAODA,YUANLIGONGNENGGAODI,RONGYIJINRUBINWEIZHUANGTAI。

pk10赛车前三必开DILIUFANGZHENSHI“WENHUAYUYAN”,BIRUGUXILAWEN、LADINGWEN、FANWEN、GUXULIYAWEN、GUAIJIWENZI、MAYAWENZI、JIAGUWENDENG。ZHEISHIWEIYUYAN、WENZIDETESHUWENHUAJIAZHIERTEYISHEJIDE,SHIYONGDESHILINGWAIDEPINGJIABIAOZHUN。

LEJIEZHEIYIFENLEI,JIUJUYOULESHIJIEYUYANDEZONGTIGEJU。YIGEGUOJIADEWAIYUJIAOYUGUIHUA,YINGDANGYICIWEICANKAO;YIGEGUOJIADEYUYANNENGLITISHENG,YINGDANGYICIWEIYIJU。

pk10赛车前三必开(SI)ZENGQIANGZHONGWENGONGNENGDEBADAFANGLVE

pk10赛车前三必开ZHONGWENDEYUYANGONGNENG,YINGDANGGENJUHENGLIANGYUYANGONGNENGDE“8+3”ZHIBIAOTIXIQUANMIANTISHENG。GAIKUOQILAIYOUBAGEFANGMIAN。

pk10赛车前三必开YI、JIAQIANGHAIWAIHUARENDERENTONG,BAOCHIZHONGWENDEMUYURENKOU。

pk10赛车前三必开100DUONIANQIAN,HUARENDAOLENANYANG、OUMEIHESHIJIEQITAYIXIEDIFANG。XIANZAI,XINHUARENDEZUJIGENGSHIBIANJISHIJIEGEDI。ZHEIXIEHUARENDEMUYUCHUANTONGSHANGCHENGWEIHUAYU/HUAWEN,YESHUZHONGWEN。YAOTEBIEZHONGSHIHUAYUWENJIAOYU,JIANGQINARUZHONGWENGUOJIJIAOYUDELINGYU。

ER、JIAQIANGGUOJIJIAOYU,KUODAZHONGWENDEDIERYUYANRENKOU。

ZHONGWENMUYURENKOUSHIJIEDIYI,DANSHIDIERYUYANRENKOUHAIBUSHIZUIDUODE。ERYURENKOUZUIDUODESHIYINGWEN,QICISHIFAWEN、DEWENHEXIBANYAWEN。ZHEISHIZHONGWENJIDAITISHENGDEFANGMIAN。

pk10赛车前三必开SAN、NULIKUODAZHONGWENZAIGUOJIZUZHIZHONGDEZUOYONG。

ZHONGWENSHILIANHEGUOHEXUDUOGUOJIZUZHIDEGUANFANGYUYANHUOGONGZUOYUYAN,DANSHIQIZHENZHENGDEGONGNENGHAIXUYAOTISHENG。JIEZHI2018NIAN,GUOJIZUZHIYUEYOU6.2WANGE,ZHONGWENZAIZHEIXIEZUZHIZHONGDEZUOYONGHAIJIAOWEIYOUXIAN。ZENGQIANGZHONGWENZAIGUOJIZUZHIZHONGDEYUYANDIWEIHESHIJIFAHUIZUOYONG,SHIZHIDESIKAODEDAWENTI。

pk10赛车前三必开ZHONGGUOZAIGUOJIZUZHIZHONGDEZUOYONGYUELAIZHONGYAO;ZAIXUDUOGUOJIZUZHIZHONG,SUOJIAOHUIFEISUOZHANBIZHONGKAOQIAN,GUOJIGONGWUYUANYEYUELAIYUEDUO;YIZHONGGUOWEIZHUDAODEGUOJIZUZHIYEZHUJIANYOULEYIXIE。CIZHONGQINGKUANGXIA,KUODAHANYUZAIGUOJIZUZHIZHONGDEZUOYONGSHIJUBEITIAOJIANDE。DIYI,ZAIHANYUYIJINGCHENGWEIGUANFANGYUYANHUOGONGZUOYUYANDEGUOJIZUZHIZHONG,YAOJINLIANGFAHUIHANYUDEGONGZUOJIAZHI,GONGGUNAIZHIKUODAHANYUZAICILEIGUOJIZUZHIZHONGDEZUOYONG;DIER,ZAIQITAGUOJIZUZHIZHONG,YAOGENJUYUYANDUOYANGHUADEYUANZE,ZHENGQUHANYUDEGUANFANGYUYANHUOGONGZUOYUYANDIWEI;DISAN,ZAICHOUJIANDEGUOJIZUZHIZHONG,TEBIESHIZHONGGUOZHUDAOHUOYANJIUZHONGGUOWENTIWEIZHUDEGUOJIZUZHIZHONG,YAOZHONGSHISHEZHIHANYUWEIGUANFANGYUYANHUOGONGZUOYUYANDEYIYI。TONGGUOBUXIEDENULI,SHIHANYUZAIGUOJIZUZHIZHONGDEDIWEIBUDUANGONGGU,ZUOYONGBUDUANKUODA。

pk10赛车前三必开SI、DAZAOKEJI、WENHUAJINGPIN,JIAQIANGZHONGWENWENXIANDESHENGWANG。

NULIFAZHANKEXUEHEJIAOYU,CHUANGZAOCHULINGXIANYURENDEJINGSHENCHANPIN,FAMINGCHUHUIJIRENLEIDEJISHUCHANPIN,BINGYONGZHONGWENZUOWEICHENGGUOBAOGAOZAITI,ZENGJIAZHONGWENWENBENDEKEJI、WENHUAHANLIANG,ZENGQIANGZHONGWENWENXIANSHENGWANG。

pk10赛车前三必开WU、ZHONGSHIXUNIKONGJIANDEYUYANSHENGHUO,KUODAWANGLUOGAOZHILIANGWENBENSHULIANG。

ZHONGGUOSHISHIJIESHANGWANGMINZUIDUODEGUOJIA,YOU7YIWANGMIN。ZHONGGUODEWANGLUOWENBENYESHISHIJIEDIER,JINCIYUYINGWEN,BIDISANMINGDEXIBANYAWENGAOCHUYIBEIDUO。DANSHI,ZHONGWENDEWANGLUOWENBENZHILIANGHAIBUGOUGAO,DUISHIJIEYULUNDEYINGXIANGHAIBIJIAOYOUXIAN。ZHONGGUOPANGDADEWANGMINQUNTI,YINGNENGTONGGUOWANGLUORANGSHIJIELEJIEZHONGGUO,TONGGUOWANGLUOLAIMIAOHUISHIJIETUJING。WEILAISHIJIEDEGONGXIANYUJINGZHENG,KENENGBUZAIXIANSHIKONGJIAN,ERZAIXUNIDEWANGLUOSHIJIE。

LIU、JIADAFANYIDELIDU,ZHONGSHIZHONGWENWENXIANDEYICHU,YEBUYAOHUSHIWAIWENWENXIANYIRU。

YAOJIAQIANGZHONGWENDEYIRU,YINGJIANGSHIJIESHANGDEYOUXIUWENHUACHENGGUOJISHIYIWEIHANYU,“XIANGZHONGGUOJIANGHAOSHIJIEGUSHI”。ZHONGGUODEFAZHANSHIJIANLIZAIJICHENGRENLEIYOUXIUWENHUACHENGGUOJICHUSHANGDE,BUNENGZAOCHENGZHONGGUOYUSHIJIEDEWENHUAGEMO。BUNENGZHISHIYIRUYINGWENWENXIAN,YINGDANGZHONGSHICONGSHIJIEDIYI、DIERFANGZHENDE20LAIZHONGYUYANDEYIRUWENTI。TONGSHI,GENGYAOKEXUEDI、YOUCHENGXIAODIZUZHIYICHU,RANGZHONGHUAWENHUAZOUXIANGSHIJIE,“XIANGSHIJIEJIANGHAOZHONGGUOGUSHI”。YIRUSHIGUOQUFANYIDECHANGTAI,ERYICHUSHIFANYIDEXINZOUXIANG,XUYAOKEXUETANSUO,YONGXINCHANGSHI,JILEIJINGYAN,XINGCHENGMOSHI。

QI、LIYONGZHONGHUAMINGRENMINGWU,ZENGJIAZHONGWENDEWENHUAHANLIANG。

ZHONGGUOLISHIYOUJIU,WENHUASHENHOU,GUDAIDEMINGREN、MINGWU、SIXIANGGUANNIANDENG,YONGDEHAOKEYIZENGJIAZHONGWENDE“WENHUAHANLIANG”,ZENGJIAZHONGWENDEWENHUASHENGWANG。ZHONGGUODEKEJI、JIAOYUYEZAIFAZHAN,XINCHENGGUO、XINMINGREN、XINSIXIANGHUIBUDUANCHANCHU,GENGYIZHUANHUAWEI “YUYANZHILI”。

pk10赛车前三必开BA、FAZHANJINGJI,ZENGJIAZHONGWENDEJINGJISHILI。

pk10赛车前三必开YUYANNENGGOUCHUANBODAOXINDEDIQUHEQITAWENHUAZHONG,JUYOUKUAGUODEJIAOJIGONGNENGHEWENHUAGONGNENG,BINGBUQUJUEYUYUYANLISHIDEYOUJIUHUOSHIJIEGOUDEMEIMIAO,ERSHIQUJUEYUYUYANBEIHOUDEZONGHEGUOLI。BUTONGSHIDAI,ZONGHEGUOLIDEXINGCHENGYINSUHUIYOUBUTONG,JINTIANJUEDINGZONGHEGUOLIDESHIJINGJISHILIHEKEJIAOWENHUA。

ZHONGGUOSHISHIJIEDIERDAJINGJITI,ZHEISHIYIDIQUJISUANDE。RUOYIYUYANJINGJITIJISUAN,ZHONGWENJINGJITIDESHILIBIZHONGGUOJINGJITIDESHILIHAIYAODA。JINXIENIAN,ZHONGGUOHESHIJIEXUEZHEYIQITICHULE“DAHUAYU”DEGAINIAN,BA“DAHUAYU”DINGYIWEIYIPUTONGHUA/GUOYUWEIJICHUDEQUANSHIJIEHUARENDEGONGTONGYU。ZIXIZHENZHUO,“DAHUAYU”BUJINSHIYUYANGAINIAN,YESHI“DAHUAYUDIQU”DEGAINIAN,SHIDAHUAYUQUDEJINGJI、WENHUA、KEJI、JIAOYUDENGZONGHESHILIDEGAINIAN。ZHIYOUDANGJINGJIFAZHANHAOLE,ZHIYOUZHONGWENBEIHOUDEZONGHELILIANGQIANGDALE,ZHONGWENCAIGENGYOUZIGECHENGWEISHIJIEDEGONGGONGCHANPIN。

ZHONGWENGUOJIJIAOYUSHIGUORENGUANZHUDESHIDAIKETI,BUNENGZHIGUANZHUYOUDUOSHAOWAIGUORENZAIXUEZHONGWEN,YAOGUANZHUZHONGWENWAIYUJIAOSEFASHENGDEZHONGDABIANHUA,GENGYAOGUANZHUDUOSHAOWAIGUORENZAIYONGZHONGWEN、ZAIZENYANGYONGZHONGWEN。ZAIZHONGWENSHIYONGDEGUOCHENGZHONG,YAOZHUJIANZENGQIANGZHONGWENDEGUOJIGONGNENG,SHIQICHENGWEISHIJIEZHONGYAOGONGGONGCHANPIN,CHENGWEISHIJIETONGYONGDEDIERYUYAN。